Hormones are chemical messengers that influence the activity of cells and tissues all round the body. The first hormones to be identified were those produced by discrete, visible glands, such as the thyroid and the pituitary. Later, scientists discovered other messengers, including the brain biochemicals dopamine and serotonin, and trace chemicals called cytokines. New cytokines
Dogs are highly active animals, and their skeletons and muscles are subject to great stresses. Injuries are fairly common, but muscle and bone tissues have a remarkable capacity for self-repair. Other problems can result from diseases of the joints or bones.The most common sign of muscle, bone, or joint disorders is lameness, usually, but not
Many of the medical conditions affecting a female dog's reproductive tract are extremely serious and can even be fatal, although risk of these disorders can be reduced by spaying. In contrast, few reproductive disorders affecting the male are life-threatening. Dangers During BirthThere are several risks to a female dog when giving birth. If she fails
Eye disorders account for a large number of visits to the clinic because they are amongst the easiest problems to recognize and always appear potentially worrisome. Understanding the signsCheck with your vet if you notice any of the symptoms below: they may simply indicate an allergy, but can also be caused by more serious concerns,
The ear is a vulnerable part of a dogs body. The outer ear flap is easily damaged, while the ear canal encourages the accumulation of wax, debris, and water, and provides an access point for a variety of infections. Common Indicators Dogs with ear problems may show any of the following clinical signs: Head and
Facts A dog's immune system is its defense system, made up of antibodies, white blood cells, and other substances. This defense system works to reject foreign bodies and attack infections. It differentiates between "self" cells and "non-self" cells by markers - called antigens - located on the surface of every cell in the dog's body.
Cancers are diseases that occur in most animals, including dogs. A cancer results when a cell in a dog's body starts to replicate uncontrollably, forming clumps of abnormal or cancerous cells called tumours. These cancer cells escape detection and trick the natural killer cells of the body's immune system into not attacking and destroying them.
Euthanasia: a release from suffering Euthanasia means voluntarily ending the life of a dog suffering from a terminal or incurable condition. Some instances where Euthansia is likely the best option inlcude:- Irreversible disease that has progressed to a point where distress or discomfort cannot be controlled; Old age wear and tear that permanently affects the
Facts Hypertension (HTN), also called high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a medical condition that describes elevated blood pressure in a dog’s arteries. When a dog has high blood pressure, its heart has to work harder than normal to circulate blood through its body. The condition may be either primary or secondary HTN: primary
Facts Hypoglycemia also called low blood sugar, is an abnormally low concentration of glucose in a dog’s blood. Glucose is produced when the dog consumes carbohydrates and is used as energy for all the dog’s cells, activity, and basic body function. When the dog produces more glucose than it needs, that glucose converts to glycogen
Facts In a healthy body, the white blood cells (leukocytes) are an essential part of the dog’s immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and work to defend the dog’s body against foreign invaders and infectious diseases. There are several different types of white blood cells (eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets, basophils, monocytes, and neturophils),