For male dogs that are not neutered, testicular cancer is among one of the most common conditions. Cancer can be described as a growth of cells in or on the body that has blown out of control. There are three different types of testicular cancer. These are seminomas, sertoli cell tumours and interstitial cell tumours.

The urinary tract is made up of the ureters, urethra, bladder, and kidneys, and prostate gland in males. The urinary system is responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine. Genital organs are also involved in the elimination of urine. Urinary tract disorders are diseases, infections, or obstructions that affect any part of the urinary system in dogs. Any disease that affects these areas of the body results in the buildup of waste or toxins in the canine’s body.

Traffic accidents, dogfights, and unexpected traumatic injuries are the most common causes of bleeding wounds. An injured dog may be in considerable pain, and must be treated with great care to minimize discomfort and reduce the danger of biting.

Poisons can enter the your dog’s body through its skin, by being inhaled, or by being ingested. As inveterate scavengers, dogs are most prone to swallowing poisons, but fortunately, most ingested chemicals are vomited straight back up. Nevertheless, vets still deal with too many needless accidents caused by not keeping dangerous substances safely stored out of a curious dog’s reach.

Facts The aortic valve is one of four valves of the heart. De-oxygenated blood enters the right atrium via the vena cava. The heart contracts and pumps the blood through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. After another pump of the heart, the blood goes into the lungs to become oxygenated. Once oxygenated, the…

Problems may occur anywhere in the respiratory system – from a tickle in the nose producing a sneeze, to trauma in the chest causing laboured breathing and clinical shock. Infections and disorders can occur in either the upper respiratory system, including the nose and windpipe, or in the chest and lungs – the lower respiratory…

Facts Heartworm is really not a disease, but an infection of Dirofilaria immitis, a parasitic round worm. While the name implies the worm resides in the heart, it actually starts out in the pulmonary arteries – the arteries that connect the lungs to the heart – and does massive damage to the lung tissue and…

Facts Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant, very aggressive form of cancer that forms anywhere in the body where there is blood supply, but it most usually forms on the skin, in soft tissues, or on the spleen or heart. It develops in the lining of a dog’s blood vessels, and can cause a fatal blood loss…

FactsBrachycephalic airway syndrome is a respiratory condition that most commonly affects certain breeds of dogs. It refers to a number of upper airway issues found in these breeds. By definition brachycephalic means a broad, short head, and these affected dogs usually have an elongated soft palate (which is when the soft palate is so long…

The brain, through its connections with the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, coordinates all activities, thoughts, senses, feelings, emotions, movement, and body functions. If the brain is damaged, this can lead to behaviour changes, seizures, loss of coordination, paralysis, or coma. Brain injures Brain injuries are frequently caused by physical injuries, especially as a result…

Facts Hypertension (HTN), also called high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a medical condition that describes elevated blood pressure in a dog’s arteries. When a dog has high blood pressure, its heart has to work harder than normal to circulate blood through its body. The condition may be either primary or secondary HTN: primary…

Facts Red blood cells (RBC) work to deliver oxygen to the dog’s tissues. This is done when the blood cells pick up oxygen in the lungs and release it to the body’s cells when the RBCs squeeze through the capillaries. This “pick up” is performed by the iron-containing hemoglobin (also spelled haemoglobin) biomolecule. The hemoglobin…

Hormones are chemical messengers that influence the activity of cells and tissues all round the body. The first hormones to be identified were those produced by discrete, visible glands, such as the thyroid and the pituitary. Later, scientists discovered other messengers, including the brain biochemicals dopamine and serotonin, and trace chemicals called cytokines. New cytokines…

Facts Hypoglycemia, also called low blood sugar, is an abnormally low concentration of glucose in a dog’s blood. Glucose is produced when the dog consumes carbohydrates, and is used as energy for all the dog’s cells, activity, and basic body function. When the dog produces more glucose than it needs, that glucose converts to glycogen…

Facts Red blood cells, also called RBCs, are the most common blood cell in the circulatory system. They contain hemoglobin (also spelled haemoglobin), a biomolecule containing iron, that binds to oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to the rest of the body’s cells. Once the oxygen is released, the RBC then picks up carbon…

Facts Mammary cancer is the presence of a tumour or multiple tumours in the mammary glands. There is a very high risk factor for intact females, especially as they age and go through multiple cycles of heat. Lumps or masses can be benign or malignant and both require medical treatment. It is almost split right…

Dogs are highly active animals, and their skeletons and muscles are subject to great stresses. Injuries are fairly common, but muscle and bone tissues have a remarkable capacity for self-repair. Other problems can result from diseases of the joints or bones.The most common sign of muscle, bone, or joint disorders is lameness, usually, but not…

Facts In a healthy body, the white blood cells (leukocytes) are an essential part of the dog’s immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and work to defend the dog’s body against foreign invaders and infectious diseases. There are several different types of white blood cells (eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets, basophils, monocytes, and neturophils),…

Facts Babesiosis (also called Babesia infection) is a disease passed to mammals via ticks. The Babesia parasite is a microscopic organism that takes up residence the dog’s red blood cells and eventually destroys the RBCs, which causes the animal to become anemic. Babesiosis is the second most common blood parasite disorder of all mammals, although…

Damage to the spinal cord, whether it occurs spontaneously or results from an accident, can cause loss of voluntary muscle movement, changes in spinal reflexes or muscle tone, muscle shrinkage, and loss of touch and pain sensations. This damage may be irreparable. Paralysis Paralysis is often caused by traumatic spinal cord injury from road traffic…